What is the Torsen Differential? Uses Of Torsen Differentials.

Torsen differential

The Torsen differential may be defined as a mechanical device (from torsion Sensing) that works as AN normal differential when the value of torsion reaching to every wheel is equal And it becomes united when it starts to lose traction, the distinction in torsion causes the gears within the Torsen differential to bind along. the look of the gears within the differential determines the torsion bias ratio.

Torsen differential
Torsen differential

 As an example, if a specific Torsen differential is meant with a 5:1 bias magnitude relation, it’s capable of applying up to 5 times additional torsion to the wheel that has sensible traction. These devices square measure usually utilized in superior all-wheel-drive vehicles. just like the viscous coupling, they’re usually accustomed transfer power between the front and rear wheels. during this application, the Torsen is superior to the viscous coupling as a result of it transfers torsion to the stable wheels before the particular slithering happens. However, if one set of wheels loses traction utterly, the Torsen differential is going to be unable to provide any torsion to the opposite set of wheels.

The bias magnitude relation determines what quantity torsion is often transferred, and 5 times zero is zero. The HMMWV, or Hummer, uses Torsen differentials on the front and rear axles. The owner’s manual for the Hummer proposes a unique answer to the matter of 1 wheel returning off the ground: Apply the brakes. By applying the brakes, torsion is applied to the wheel that’s within the air, then 5 times that torsion will move to the wheel with sensible traction. Torsen Torque-Sensing (full name Torsen traction) may be a sort of limited-slip differential utilized in cars. It was fabricated by Yankee Vernon Gleasman and made by the Gleason Corporation.

Torsen may be a contraction of Torque-Sensing. TORSEN and TORSEN Traction square measure registered emblems of JTEKT Torsen North America opposition (formerly Zexel Corporation, at one time Gleason Power Systems). All Torsen differentials have their origin within the Dual-Drive Differential that was fabricated and proprietary by Gleasman in 1958.

Torsen differential
Torsen differential

Uses Of Torsen Differentials:

Torsen differentials are often utilized in one or additional positions on a motor vehicle:

  • Center accustomed apportion applicable torsion distribution between front ANd rear axles on an all-wheel-drive vehicle.
  • Rear accustomed apportion applicable torsion distribution between left and right sides in rear axles. this might get on either a rear-wheel drive or machine drive vehicle.
  • Front accustomed apportion applicable torsion distribution between left and right sides before axles. this might get on either a front-wheel-drive or machine drive vehicle.
  • A four-wheel-drive vehicle, as an example, could use either one, two, or 3 Torsen differentials.

Types Torsen differentials

  As of 2008, there square measure 3 forms of Torsen differentials.

  1. The first Torsen T-1 (Type A) uses crossed axis coiling gears to limit torsion split. the sort I am often designed for higher torsion bias ratios than the sort II, however generally has a higher backlash and also the potential for Noise, Vibration, and Harshness (NVH) problems, and needs a certain setup/installation.
  2. The later Torsen T-2 (Type B) uses a parallel gear arrangement to realize an identical impact. there’s conjointly a specialist application of the T-2, referred to as the T-2R (RaceMaster).
  3. The newest Torsen T-3 (Type C) may be a planetary kind differential, in this, the nominal torsion split isn’t 50:50. the sort C is obtainable as single or twin version; the Torsen twin C differential has front and center differential within the same unit.

The Torsen T-3 is presently used because of the center differential altogether non-Haldex Traction Audi models with a ZF-sourced automatic drive Quattro machine drive, such as Audi A6, Audi A7, and Audi Q7. Audi uses a mechanical “Crown Wheel” center differential for all longitudinal implementations victimization dual-clutch transmissions, like the 2013/14 S4/RS4. Alfa Romeo used a Torsen C twin differential within the Alfa Romeo 156 Crosswagon this fall and conjointly within the 159, Alfa Romeo Brera and Spider this fall model. Also, Toyota uses a Torsen T-3 within the center differential of the 4Runner restricted, FJ Cruiser 6-speed manual, Land Cruiser, and Lexus GX470, with manual protection feature, and General Motors used a Torsen T-3 center differential within the transfer case of the Chevrolet TrailBlazer SS and Saab 9-7X (Aero model only).

The behavior of Torsen differentials

The Torsen differential works rather like a standard differential, however, will lock up if a torsion imbalance happens, the utmost magnitude relation of torsion imbalance being outlined by the torsion Bias magnitude relation (TBR).[2] once a Torsen contains a 3:1 TBR, which means that one facet of the differential will handle up to seventy-fifth whereas the opposite facet would need to solely handle twenty-fifths of applied torsion.

Throughout acceleration below uneven traction conditions, goodbye because the higher traction facet will handle the upper share of applied torsion, no relative wheelspin can occur. once the traction distinction exceeds the TBR, the slower output facet of the differential receives the friction torsion of the quicker wheel increased by the TBR; any further torsion remaining from applied torsion contributes to the angular acceleration of the quicker output facet of the differential.

The TBR shouldn’t be confused with the uneven torque-split feature within the planetary-type Torsen III. The planetary gear mechanism permits a Torsen III center differential to distribute torsion inconsistently between the front and rear axles throughout traditional (full traction) operation while not causing wind-up within the drivetrain. This feature is freelance of the torsion Bias magnitude relation.

When a vehicle is during a flip, the outer wheel can rotate quicker than the inner wheel. Friction within the differential can oppose the motion, which can work to slow the quicker facet and speed up the slower/inner facet. This results in uneven torsion distributions in drive wheels, matching the TBR. Cornering during this manner can scale back the torsion applied to the outer tire, resulting in probably bigger cornering power, unless the inner wheel is flooded (which is simpler {to do|to try to |to try ANd do} than with an open differential).

once the inner tire (which has less traction because of weight transfer from lateral acceleration) is flooded, it angularly accelerates up to the outer wheel speed (small % wheel spin) and also the differential locks, and if the traction distinction doesn’t exceed the TBR, the outer wheel can then have the next torsion applied to that. If the traction distinction exceeds the TBR, the outer tire gets the friction torsion of the inner wheel increased by the TBR, and also the remaining applied torsion to the differential contributes to wheel spin up.

When a Torsen differential is utilized, the slower-moving wheel continuously receives additional torsion than the faster-moving wheel. The Torsen T-2R RaceMaster is that the solely Torsen to own a preload clutch. So, albeit a wheel is mobile, torsion is applied to the opposite facet. If one wheel were raised within the air, the regular Torsen units would act like AN open differential, and no torsion would be transferred to the opposite wheel.

To understand the process better, watch the video below:

Torsen differential

Torsen Differential Applications:

  •       Bentley Continental GT, Bentley Continental Torsen T-2 with Flying Spur, current have T-3.
  •       Audi Quattro with various iterations of Torsen, T-3 starting from the 2007 B7 RS4.
  •       Brera, Spider 100 & 200.
  •       Toyota 4Runner Torsen T-3 with a lock(only Limited V8 model & 2010 Limited V6 model).
  •       A5 & S5.
  •       Q5, Q7.
  •       A8, S8.
  •       Volkswagen Phaeton Torsen T-2.
  •       A6, S6, RS6.
  •       Chevrolet Trailblazer SS Torsen T-3.
  •       A4, S4, RS4.
  •       Range Rover 3rd Gen. 2002–2009.
  •       Volkswagen Passat Torsen T-2 (latest B6 model with transverse engine).
  •       Toyota FJ Cruiser Torsen T-3 with a lock(only manual models).
  •       Toyota Hilux Surf Torsen T-3 with a lock.
  •       Lexus GX470, Toyota Land Cruiser Prado 120 Torsen T-3.
  •       Toyota Land Cruiser 200/2008/V8 Torsen T-3 with a lock.
  •       Volkswagen Passenger Cars with 4motion.
  •       80, 90 & Coupé (Type 89).
  •       Toyota Sequoia ( 2005-07 Models).


  1. How a Rear Differential Works?
  2. Limited-slip Differential.
  3. Locking Rear Differential.
  4. Open Differential.
  5. Front Differential.
  6. Hypoid Differential Gear.


Creative Blogger And Automobile Engineer.

One thought on “What is the Torsen Differential? Uses Of Torsen Differentials.

  • October 6, 2019 at 10:06 am

    Great site. A lot of useful info here. I am sending it to several friends ans also sharing in delicious. And obviously, thanks for your effort!


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